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the history of the legend: Journal history

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Lacy, Norris J. (1996c), "Nine Worthies", in Lacy, Norris J. (ed.), The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, New York: Garland, p.344, ISBN 978-1-56865-432-4 . Vampires and werewolves, creatures from European tradition symbolise contrasting elements in human nature: violence and desire, beauty and horror, featuring in titles such as the Twilight series and Buffy the Vampire-Slayer. Also drawing on myth from Scandinavia is the Thor franchise, while other superhero series use similar tropes of hero and monster, re-tooling and modernising many of the characters, themes and stereotypes of myth and legend. They are staples of video games that are often set in fantasy universes and structured around the quest as a framework. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLACE IN MYTH Barber, Richard (2004), The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief, London: Allen Lane, ISBN 978-0-7139-9206-9 . Harty, Kevin J. (1997), "Arthurian Film", Arthuriana/Camelot Project Bibliography , retrieved 22 May 2008 . The familiar literary persona of Arthur began with Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudo-historical Historia Regum Britanniae ( History of the Kings of Britain), written in the 1130s. The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey's Historia (known as pre-Galfridian texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, Galfridus) and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence (Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts).

Content approaching. Star Wars: Knight Errant, Star Wars: Fate of the Jedi, Star Wars: Legacy Volume 2–class. Pyle, Howard (1903), The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, Illustrated by Howard Pyle, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its other derivative works (such as Wace's Roman de Brut) gave rise to a significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France. [77] It was not, however, the only Arthurian influence on the developing " Matter of Britain". There is clear evidence that Arthur and Arthurian tales were familiar on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known (see for example, the Modena Archivolt), [78] and "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's Historia appear in the Arthurian romances. [79] From the perspective of Arthur, perhaps the most significant effect of this great outpouring of new Arthurian story was on the role of the king himself: much of this 12th-century and later Arthurian literature centres less on Arthur himself than on characters such as Lancelot and Guinevere, Percival, Galahad, Gawain, Ywain, and Tristan and Iseult. Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined. [80] His character also alters significantly. In both the earliest materials and Geoffrey he is a great and ferocious warrior, who laughs as he personally slaughters witches and giants and takes a leading role in all military campaigns, [81] whereas in the continental romances he becomes the roi fainéant, the "do-nothing king", whose "inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society". [82] Arthur's role in these works is frequently that of a wise, dignified, even-tempered, somewhat bland, and occasionally feeble monarch. So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu, whilst in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap. [83] Nonetheless, as Norris J. Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never—or almost never—compromised by his personal weaknesses... his authority and glory remain intact." [84] The story of Arthur drawing the sword from a stone appeared in Robert de Boron's 13th-century Merlin. By Howard Pyle (1903) [85]

Arthur Pendragon" redirects here. For other uses, see Arthur Pendragon (disambiguation) and King Arthur (disambiguation). This is the only possible original bearing the name of Robin Hood who is know to have been an outlaw (there are other Hoods in Wakefield, but none of them seem to have been fugitives). An epitaph recorded by Thomas Gale in 1702 recorded that a grave purporting to be that of Robin Hood lay at Kirklees (where the legend claims he was killed), dated to 1247. Halsall, Guy (2013). Worlds of Arthur: Facts & Fictions of the Dark Ages. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870084-5.

Mancoff, Debra N. (1990), The Arthurian Revival in Victorian Art, New York: Garland, ISBN 978-0-8240-7040-3 . This William son of Robert and William Robehod were certainly one and the same, and some clerk during transcription had changed the name. It follows that the man who changed the name knew of the legend and equated the name of Robin Hood with outlawry.Bromwich, Rachel; Evans, D. Simon (1992), Culhwch and Olwen. An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 978-0-7083-1127-1 . It has been argued that the name Arthur is derived from 'bear', which corresponds with Celtic bear gods Artos or Artio. Carley, J. P. (1984), "Polydore Vergil and John Leland on King Arthur: The Battle of the Books", Arthurian Interpretations (15): 86–100 . Burns, E. Jane (1985), Arthurian Fictions: Re-reading the Vulgate Cycle, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, ISBN 978-0-8142-0387-3 . See Jones & Jones 1949 for accurate translations of all three texts. It is not entirely certain what, exactly, the relationship is between these Welsh romances and Chrétien's works, however: see Koch 1996, pp.280–288 for a survey of opinions

The Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men. Recent studies question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum. [7]Harty, Kevin J. (1996), "Films", in Lacy, Norris J. (ed.), The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, New York: Garland, pp.152–155, ISBN 978-1-56865-432-4 . Kibler, William; Carroll, Carleton W., eds. (1991), Chrétien de Troyes: Arthurian Romances, London: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-044521-3 .

The term "urban legend," as generally used by folklorists, has appeared in print since at least 1968. [29] Jan Harold Brunvand, professor of English at the University of Utah, introduced the term to the general public in a series of popular books published beginning in 1981. Brunvand used his collection of legends, The Vanishing Hitchhiker: American Urban Legends & Their Meanings (1981) to make two points: first, that legends and folklore do not occur exclusively in so-called primitive or traditional societies, and second, that one could learn much about urban and modern culture by studying such tales.Walter, Philippe (2005) [2002], Artù. L'orso e il re[ Original French title: Arthur: l'ours et le roi; English: Arthur: The Bear and the King] (in Italian), Translated by M. Faccia, Edizioni Arkeios (Original French publisher: Imago) . Bourgès, André-Yves, "Guillaume le Breton et l'hagiographie bretonne aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles", in: Annales de Bretagne et des pays de l'Ouest, 1995, 102–1, pp. 35–45.; See Ashe 1985 for an attempt to use this vita as a historical source. Alliterative Morte Arthure translated and retold in modern English alliterative prose, from Lincoln Cathedral MS 91, the Lincoln Thornton Manuscript.

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