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The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

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Now under the banner of James II’s grandson, Charles Edward Stuart, the ‘Bonnie Prince’, they initially achieved an astonishing victory against the Whig Government’s forces at Prestonpans. Riot and Popular Jacobitism in Early Hanoverian England, in Ideology and conspiracy: aspects of Jacobitism, 1689–1759. This almost certainly understates their numbers, for many sympathisers remained within the Church of England, but Non Jurors were disproportionately represented in Jacobite risings and riots, and provided many "martyrs". By the Peace of Utrecht, France and Spain switched their recognition to the Hanoverian succession in 1713, [19] although France subsequently recognised James as "King of Scotland" during the 1745 rising. Most English participants in 1715 came from traditionally Catholic areas in the northwest, such as Lancashire.

Upon the death of James, the "Old Pretender", in 1766, Charles, as James's eldest son, assumed his claim to the throne. Who does the tall, dark man on the left, with the elaborate wig, staring straight out at you, remind you of? While wandering around the Groeninge Museum, I was struck by this group portrait: it shows the Brugge Guild of Surgeons, and was painted by Philyps Bernaert (1620–83). This is the first modern history for general readers of the entire Jacobite movement in Scotland, England and Ireland, from the 'Glorious Revolution' of 1688 that drove James II into exile to the death of his grandson, Cardinal Henry, Duke of York, in 1807. The Irish Jacobites and their French allies were finally defeated at the battle of Aughrim in 1691, and the Treaty of Limerick ended the war in Ireland; future risings on behalf of the exiled Stuarts were confined to England and Scotland.In 1689, around 2% of clergy in the Church of England refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary; one list identifies a total of 584 clergy, schoolmasters and university dons as Non Jurors. Non-juring Church of Ireland clergyman Charles Leslie was perhaps the most extreme divine right theorist, but even he argued the monarch was bound by "his oath to God, as well as his promise to his people" and "the laws of justice and honour".

For Seward, the final end of Jacobitism came not at Culloden but in 1759, when the French were decisively beaten by the British at Quiberon Bay during the Seven Years War. George III came to the throne the following year – a sharp contrast to the ageing Charles, now a drunkard, who had conspicuously failed to produce an heir. Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the western Scottish Highlands, Perthshire and Aberdeenshire, and areas of Northern England with a high proportion of Catholics such as western Lancashire, Northumberland and County Durham. Jacobite soldiers went into exile in the diaspora known as the Flight of the Wild Geese, the majority of whom were later absorbed into the French Irish Brigade. In February 1689, the English Parliament appointed William and Mary joint monarchs of England, while the Scots followed suit in March.But a definite memorial of Charles’s stay is his granting, in 1666, of the Privilegie der Visscherie, which allowed fifty Bruges ships to catch herring and other fish in British waters in perpetuity.

In 1822 he arranged a pageantry of reinvented Scottish traditions for the visit of King George IV to Scotland. It also ignored the impact of the 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked tolerance for French Protestants and created an estimated 400,000 refugees, 40,000 of whom settled in London. You really do get the sense that the British state was rattled by the rebellion, and that fear of the Jacobites lingered long after the Forty-Five.One reason was the persistence of feudalism in parts of rural Scotland, where tenants could be compelled to provide their landlords with military service.

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